2.Visual flight rules
2.1Basic rules of flight execution
Note: It`s inevitable to be aware of the fact that the pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, whether manipulating the controls or not, be responsible for the execution of the flight in accordance with the rules of the air, except that the pilot-in-command may depart from these rules in circumstances that render such departure absolutely necessary in the interests of safety.
Before beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall become familiar with all available information appropriate to the intended operation. Pre-flight action for flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome, and for all IFR flights, shall include a careful study of available current weather reports and forecasts, taking into consideration fuel requirements and an alternative course of action if the flight cannot be completed as planned.
Particularly before commencing a VFR flight to/from controlled aerodrome or intending to enter controlled airspace, in which the flight becomes a subject to ATC clearance (i.e. to the airspace classes C, D, see chapter “Airspace of the CR”), the flight crew shall become familiar with corresponding flight procedures and local conditions of VFR operations published by means of this manual, resp. AIP CR.
In case of danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an aerodrome the following shall apply:
- when two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear;
- when two aircraft are on a converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way;
- an aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.
- unless otherwise approved by aerodrome control tower, an aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all runway-holding positions unless an explicit clearance to enter or cross the runway has been issued by the aerodrome control tower
An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking off or about to take off
Except when necessary for take-off or landing or except by permission issued by the Civil Aviation Authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:
- over congested area of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft,unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without hazard to persons or property on the surface.
- elsewhere than specified in a) at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water. Except where otherwise indicated in ATC clearance, VFR flights at levels above 5000 ft above mean sea level, shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the tables of cruising levels.
Note: Pilot of single-engine aircraft should fly in such a way that in the case of engine failure could land on a suitable surface.
2.1.5Avoidance of collisions
The pilot shall constantly monitor airspace in the vicinity of aircraft, regardless of class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating. An aircraft shall not be operated in such proximity to other aircraft as to create a collision hazard.
The aircraft that has the right-of-way shall maintain its heading and speed. An aircraft that is obliged by the following rules to keep out of the way of another shall avoid passing over, under or in front of the other, unless it passes well clear and takes into account the effect of aircraft wake turbulence.
When two aircraft are approaching head-on or approximately so and there is danger of collision, each shall alter its heading to the right.
When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way, except as follows:
- power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and balloons;
- airships shall give way to gliders and balloons;
- gliders shall give way to balloons;
- power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects.
An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70 degrees with the plane of symmetry of the latter. An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its heading to the right, until it is entirely past and clear. A sailplane overtaking another sailplane may alter its course to the right or to the left.
An aircraft in flight or operating on the ground shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land. When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level, but the latter shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is in the final stages of an approach to land, or to overtake that aircraft. Nevertheless, power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders. An aircraft that is aware that another is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.
If pilot does not receive taxi instructions before landing at the aerodrome where aerodrome ATC service is provided, he can leave RWY using nearest serviceable TWY. After leaving RWY he may continue to taxi only if he obtains taxi clearance from TWR. When leaving the RWY pilot-in-command is not allowed to taxi back track on the RWY.
2.2Conditions of VFR flight operations
188.8.131.52Except when operating as a special VFR flight, execution of what is bound to CTR, VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in chapter "Airspace of the Czech Republic" in this Manual.
184.108.40.206Flights within Class G airspace at flight visibility lower than 5 km but to not less than 1500 m can be executed at speed of 140 kts IAS and less that, in prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collisions, and in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.
Helicopters flights may be permitted to operatein less than 1500 m, but not less than 800 m flight visibility, if manoeuvered at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision. Flight visibilities lower than 800 m may be permitted for special cases, such as medical flights, search and rescue operations and fire-fighting.
220.127.116.11With the exception when no permission has been received from ATC unit, VFR flights shall not take off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter control zone or traffic pattern:
- when the ceiling is less than 1500 ft (450 m), or
- when ground visibility is less than 5 km.
Note: The value of ceiling 1500 ft (450 m) is derived from the lowest height above ground or water, in which the VFR flight should be conducted (see paragraph 2.1.5 "After departure"). When flying in CTR (which is in all cases airspace of Class D in the CR); the pilot shall always simultaneously comply with the prescribed VMC conditions, as shown in chapter “Airspace of the Czech Republic” in this manual. I. e. for example if the traffic pattern is flown in height 1000 ft (300 m), the height of cloud base shall not be less than 2000 ft (600 m).
18.104.22.168Special VFR flights may be authorised to operate within a control zone, subject to an ATC clearance. Except when permitted by the competent authority for helicopters in special cases such as medical flights, search and rescue operations and fire-fighting, the following additional conditions shall be applied:
- by the pilot:
- clear of cloud and with the surface in sight;
- the flight visibility is not less than 1 500 m or for helicopters not less than 800 m;
- at speed of 140 kts IAS or less to give adequate oopportunity to observe other traffic and any obstacles in time to avoid colision; and
- by ATC:
- during day only, unless otherwise permitted by the competent authority;
- the ground visibility is not less than 1 500 m or for helicopters not less than 800 m;
- the ceiling is not less than 180 m (600 ft).
Note: Daytime and minimum ground visibility requirements for special VFR flights stated above shall not apply to helicopter air ambulance (HEMS) and the flights of the Police of the CR. The pilot is solely responsible for compliance with operational requirements and minima.
Note: Special VFR flight shall meet the conditions for two-way communication with appropriate ATC unit.
Note: Ground visibility is the visibility measured by an accredited observer on the ground and transmitted to the aircraft on the operational frequency or on the ATIS broadcast. Ground visibility may be lower than the flight visibility observed by the pilots and is always relevant to the issue of ATC clearance.
22.214.171.124VFR flights of aircraft not equipped for IFR or pilot has no rating for IFR flights, shall be operated so that continuous visual ground contact is maintained. Flights above clouds shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions when cloud amount is not greater than 4/8 and aircraft is able to navigate by visual reference.
126.96.36.199In the case of radar assistance in the form of recommended headings to special VFR flight, the pilot is responsible for avoiding collision with terrain and obstructions and he is obliged:
- to adhere to meteorological conditions that shall not be worse than specified for special VFR flight
- to inform immediately the appropriate ATS unit when meteorological conditions do not fulfill VMC.
2.2.2Conditions for conducting VFR flights above FL95
VFR flights above FL 95 shall be planned along ATS routes. In the CR, flights along ATS routes (except TMA) above FL 95 operate in airspace of Class C, where the separation from IFR flights is ensured. For this reason, ATC may assign to VFR flight cruising level from table of cruising levels for IFR flights.
VFR flights shall not be operated above FL 195, with the exception as stated below, or unless authorised by the Civil Aviation Authority.
188.8.131.52VFR flights above FL 195
En-route VFR flights will not be permitted to operate above FL 195.
VFR flights above FL 195 up to and including FL 285 shall operate:
- within temporary segregated area or restricted area, or
- in accordance with the authorisation and conditions issued by Air Navigation Services of the Czech Republic or directly by ACC Praha.
VFR flights above FL 285 shall operate within temporary segregated area or restricted area only.
Additional procedures and conditions of the airspace use may be established together with the decision about allocation of temporary segregated area or restricted area.
2.3Conditions stemmed from ATS procedures
Note: The appropriate chapter of this manual is dedicated to the process and advices for flight plan filling and its submission to ATS units.
184.108.40.206For VFR flight plan submitted for flight to/from abroad up to FL 95 pilot shall indicate in field 18 of FPL point or border of FIR LKAA and geographical place or the direction and distance from geographical place in FIR Praha and in all cases estimated elapsed time to Praha FIR boundary.
EET/LKAA 0050-5 km S KVILDA
2.3.2Reports of Departure
To enable alerting service provision according to Annex 11, Ch. 5 the pilot of the aircraft executing VFR flight from uncontrolled aerodrome with filed flight plan or a person commissioned by the pilot is obliged to pass the report of departure on to FIC or to the nearest suitable ATS unit as soon as possible:
- after departure via telephone by a person commissioned by the pilot,
- after departure via radio telephony.
220.127.116.11Report of departure shall contain:
- aircraft identification
- aerodrome or operational point of departure
- aerodrome or operational point of arrival
- time of departure
18.104.22.168Phraseology to be used for departure report:
... (call sign) DEPARTURE FROM ... (aerodrome or operational point of departure) TO ... (aerodrome or operational point of arrival) AT ... (time).
Note: When the Report of Departure for the objective flight is not passed on as indicated in para. 2.3.2 of the section VFR-ENR-2, letter a) and b), the appropriate ATS unit will not provide ATS related to filed flight plan and the flight will be understood as a flight without filed flight plan.
22.214.171.124In accordance with ICAO Doc 4444, Ch. 11 the ATS unit serving to the aerodrome of departure (see AIP CR, section GEN 3 and subsection ENR 1.10) is responsible for consequent distribution of DEP message. Whenever the DEP message is not delivered to appropriate ATS unit, pilots of aircraft executing VFR flights with filed flight plans arriving to aerodromes of destination within FIR Praha will be asked for ETA report.
2.3.3When the VFR flight is conducted to/from controlled aerodrome and within controlled airspace, except for class E airspace, it becomes a subject to ATC clearance, i.e. a controlled flight.
An ATC clearance is issued through the submission of a flight plan to an air traffic control unit.
126.96.36.199When intending to enter CTR/TMA (or CTA class C alternatively), the pilot of uncontrolled flight is obliged to ask the locally appropriate ATC unit (i.e. APP or TWR) for the entry clearance, in advance prescribed either by AIP C.R. (article ENR 188.8.131.52 and local procedures in relevant AIP AD subsections), either by this Manual (article 184.108.40.206 and local procedures in relevant VFR-AD part).
Note: With regards to the radio and surveillance coverage as well as the extent and capacity of services provided by FIC, it is necessary to bear in mind the fact that the pilot of uncontrolled flight is responsible for a timely establishment of radio communication with the locally appropriate ATC unit (i.e. APP or TWR) to be able to obtain the entry clearance into its area of responsibility in a way to prevent an unauthorised penetration of airspace.
Note: Before entry to CTR/TMA the flights maintaining communication with FIC Praha are usually not instructed to change the frequency and to establish the communication with a unit providing control service within this airspace. The pilot is obliged to terminate the communication with FIC Praha and to establish the communication with subsequent unit on the appropriate channel or frequency in due time.
2.3.4An ATC clearance based on handover of information about flight
Pilots, who have not submitted FPL and need obtain an ATC clearance to enter airspace Class D or to depart from or arrive to the aerodrome where ATC is provided, shall request ATC clearance based on information about flight, passed on by radio or via telephone to the relevant ATS unit.
Note: This provision can be applied also to ATC clearances for parachute jumps from the airspace of the class C.
220.127.116.11Handover of information about VFR flight
Information about VFR flight shall be handed over on frequency or via telephone to the appropriate ATS unit together with request for ATC clearance:
- for arrival and transit at least 3 minutes before entering CTR or TMA of D class;
- for departures from controlled aerodrome or place within CTR at least 3 minutes (for VFR flights without FPL departing from LKPR at least 10 minutes) before commencement of taxi or departure from heliport.
Information about flight shall contain following items:
- VFR departures
- identification of the aircraft
- type of aircraft *
- stand number or place of parking position optionally other aerodrome or area in CTR
- aerodrome of destination or landing location *
- exit point from CTR or area of activity within CTR, required level (as appropriate),
- confirmation of ATIS information with read back of QNH
- request for ATC clearance
- VFR arrivals and transits
- identification of the aircraft
- type of aircraft *
- aerodrome or place of departure *
- aerodrome of destination or area of activity in CTR (as appropriate) *
- present position and level of the flight
- estimated time of entry into CTR
- exit point from CTR (for transiting aircraft)*
- confirmation of ATIS information with read back its QNH
- request for ATC clearance
Note: * Marked data are not handed over if FPL has been submitted.
Note: In the event that the pilot requires only information about activated area, QNH, etc., he shall notify only relevant information.
2.3.5Information about current use of TSA/TRA
The received information about current use of TSA or TRA obtained on the pilot's request is valid for 15 minutes. As soon as this time limit is up the pilot must either ask for updated information or consider the area activated.
2.3.6Reports of Arrival.
On a VFR flight for which a flight plan has been submitted the pilot shall report the time of arrival at an uncontrolled aerodrome to FIC Praha or an appropriate ATC unit.
When communication facilities at the arrival aerodrome are known to be inadequate and alternate arrangements for the handling of arrival reports on the ground are not available, immediately prior to landing, when the aircraft is in the traffic circuit and a safe landing is expected, the pilot can transmit via radiotelephony to FIC or an appropriate ATC unit a message comparable to a report of arrival stating the estimated time of landing.
18.104.22.168Report of Arrival shall contain:
- aircraft identification
- departure aerodrome or operational point of departure
- destination aerodrome or operational point of destination (only if landed on alternate aerodrome)
- arrival aerodrome or operational point of arrival
- time of landing
22.214.171.124The following phrase is to be used for the in-flight transmission of the arrival report immediately prior to landing:
... (call sign) FROM ... (aerodrome or operational point of departure) [TO ... (aerodrome or operational point of destination if landed at an alternate)] LANDING AT ... (aerodrome or operational point of arrival) WILL BE AT ... (time)
126.96.36.199Report of arrival is not required if the pilot of VFR flight operating within the airspace of class G and E, or in the airspace of class C and D at or below 1000 ft (300 m) AGL reports to FIC or to an appropriate ATC unit during the flight that the flight plan is being closed. Consequently within airspace of class G and E there is no alerting service provided to such flight in relation to its flight plan. Within the controlled airspace ATS corresponding to the airspace classification are provided until the pilot reports leaving the controlled airspace.
Phraseology to be used:
... (call sign) CLOSING MY FLIGHT PLAN
188.8.131.52Glider off-field landing Arrival Report
See paragraph 2.8.3.
2.3.7VFR flights from abroad
Pilots performing VFR flights from abroad are requested to establish communication with TWR of the nearest controlled aerodrome if they had not established communication with Praha FIC/ACC.
2.3.8Restriction on training VFR flights
Training VFR flights at controlled aerodromes or in the vicinity of such aerodromes may be restricted due to higher density of traffic. It is recommended that the pilot-in-command or an aircraft operator coordinates details of such activity with relevant ATC unit before planning.
2.4Operation on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome
Note: An aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aerodrome includes but is not limited to aircraft entering or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit.
An aircraft operated on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall, whether or not within control zone or an aerodrome traffic zone:
- observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision;
- conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation;
- follow published procedures and within the control zone comply with ATC instructions;
- except for balloons, make all turns to the left, when approaching for a landing and after taking off, unless otherwise indicated, or instructed by ATC;
- except for balloons, land and take off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air traffic considerations determine that a different direction is preferable.
2.4.1Operation on uncontrolled aerododromes and within Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ)
184.108.40.206Uncontrolled aerodrome is an aerodrome at which ATC is not provided.
Note: Information about the aerodrome concerned is allocated in section AD of this manual, resp. in AIP CR, section AD (AFIS aerodrome with published IFR arrival and departure procedures). Information about current status of the uncontrolled aerodrome is provided by the operator of that aerodrome.
Uncontrolled aerodrome is either:
- AFIS aerodrome, where AFIS to known traffic is provided or
- Aerodrome without ATS (i.e. provision of neither ATC nor AFIS is available), where the information of limited extent are provided.
Note 1: However at one aerodrome there can be ATS provided by ATC unit, which provides ATC, FIS and ALRS on one side, and AFIS unit providing AFIS and ALRS only.
Note 2: For AFIS aerodromes a non-precision instrument approach procedure can be published.
220.127.116.11Aerodrome traffic zone (ATZ) is an airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic.
Aerodrome traffic zone is set up around aerodromes with no ATC service provided. It is defined by the circle (or part of) with the radius of 3 NM (5,5 km) from the reference point of the aerodrome and by the altitude of 4 000 ft (1 200 m), unless otherwise defined by CAA. When a controlled airspace class C or D, planned TRA/TSA in AUP, or other temporary reserved area published in AIP SUP or NOTAM, or prohibited area vertically or horizontally penetrates such determined area, the ATZ is bounded by these airspaces.
Note: Below mentioned procedures are adequatly applied even during performance of flights on SLZ fields.
- The aircraft arriving at an uncontrolled aerodrome or departing from such an aerodrome
shall comply with the published pattern of aerodrome traffic circuit, unless otherwise
advised by the AFIS unit or by the unit providing information to known traffic.
Where no pattern of an aerodrome traffic circuit is known, an aircraft shall make all turns to the left when approaching for a landing or after taking off.
- When arriving at an uncontrolled aerodrome or departing from such an aerodrome the
aircraft shall use runway as follows:
- within aerodrome operational hours:
- according to information received from an AFIS unit or from a unit Providing information to known traffic;
Note: Pilot shall ask the AFIS unit or Providing information to known traffic for the acceptance to use different runway, if he/she cannot comply with the indicated runway in use. If circumstances allow, pilot of the aircraft in emergency shall advise his/her intention to use other runway than runway in use.
- outside aerodrome operational hours:
- into the wind unless safety or runway configuration determines that a different direction is preferable; and/or
- according to the previous coordination with the aerodrome operator; and/or
- according to information published in this Manual or in AIP CR, section AD.
- within aerodrome operational hours:
- A pilot of the aircraft not equipped with radio set when intending to arrive at an uncontrolled aerodrome or depart from such an aerodrome, shall coordinate his/her arrival or departure with the AFIS unit, unit Providing information to known traffic or the aerodrome operator in advance.
- Irrespective of the fact whetherAFIS or Providing information to known traffic is
provided, the aircraft equipped with radio set when operating on an uncontrolled aerodrome
and within an ATZ shall report on the frequency assigned and published for the individual
- altitude and
- intended flight or ground activity in the way and within the scope listed below.
Other aircraft operating on an uncontrolled aerodrome or within an ATZ, have to be listening to the appropriate frequency and shall use this information to avoid collisions. The aircraft shall report:
- Departing aircraft:
- commencement of taxiing and activity after departure;
- intention to cross or backtrack the runway (including inactive);
- entering the runway;
- take-off run or take-off, turn after departure or direction of flight;
Note: Pilots of helicopters, departing from the stand and pilots of gliders on take-off position of the runway, report ready for departure only.
- position of leaving the aerodrome traffic circuit;
- position of leaving an ATZ;
- Arriving aircraft:
- aerodrome of departure (if it is not the same as the aerodrome of destination)
- the position of the aircraft prior entering an ATZ;
- intended position of entry to the aerodrome traffic circuit;
- downwind position;
- base leg;
Note: If requested by an AFIS unit or by a unit providing information to known traffic, pilots shall omit downwind and base leg position reports or shall report other positions. Downwind and base leg positions are not reported when an aircraft is making straight-in approach.
- missed approach (next circuit);
- intention to cross or backtrack the runway (including inactive);
- vacating the runway in the night, or if there is another known traffic on the final;
- The aircraft transiting an ATZ:
- position and altitude of intended entry to an ATZ and exit from an ATZ; or
- distance, geographic direction from an aerodrome, track and altitude to be flown within an ATZ.
- Aircraft arriving to SLZ field which is located inside the aerodrome ATZ shall when
entering this ATZ:
- report the intended activity related to the arrival on the SLZ field on a frequency of an appropriate AFIS unit or Providing information to known traffic.
Note: The frequency used at SLZ fields serves for mutual comunication among traffic participants at those fields and information corresponding to AFIS or Providing information to known traffic cannot be expected.
- Vertical position of the aircraft within an ATZ shall be expressed in terms of altitude according to aerodrome QNH. The aircraft arriving outside aerodrome operational hours uses regional QNH altimeter setting. Vertical position of the aircraft crossing an ATZ may also be expressed in terms of altitude according to regional QNH.
- A pilot of the aircraft conducting night flight, flight training to obtain pilot license for the airplanes and helicopters in the framework of local operations, airdrops or glider launch on an uncontrolled aerodrome is allowed to do so, only provided that AFIS or the information to known traffic is provided at the aerodrome and within respective ATZ. The provision about night flights is not applied to air rescue service and flights of state aircraft.
- A pilot of the aircraft and/or person in charge of air show and/or air competition on an uncontrolled aerodrome is allowed to do so, only on condition that AFIS or Providing information to known traffic is provided at the aerodrome and within respective ATZ.
- A pilot of the aircraft and/or person in charge when intending to conduct local activity at an uncontrolled aerodrome shall coordinate such an operation with the AFIS unit or unit Providing information to known traffic or the aerodrome operator in advance.
- A pilot of the aircraft and/or person in charge when intending to conduct a local flight operation from another site inside the ATZ or when passes into the ATZ, within operational hours of an aerodrome, shall coordinate his/her intended activity with the AFIS unit or unit Providing information to known traffic or with the aerodrome operator in advance, unless given otherwise in the appropriate letter of agreement.
18.104.22.168Announcement of Arrival and Departure on an uncontrolled aerodrome.
- Pilot of the aircraft (with exception of hang-glider or para-glider), departing from
an uncontrolled aerodrome or arrives at an uncontrolled aerodrome within operational
hours of an aerodrome, shall announce to the AFIS unit or to the unit providing information
to known traffic, by radiotelephony or personally:
- the registration mark of the aircraft,
- time of take-off (in case of departures) / time of landing (in case of arrivals),
- name of pilot in command and
- total number of persons on the board.
This announcement does not substitute Report of Departure or Report of Arrival on a flight for which FPL has been submitted (see para 2.3.5).
- During the local flight activity pilot announces only time of the first departure and time of the last landing at series of flights held within one day, on condition that the aircraft returns each time to the same place, period between succeeding flights does not overreach 30 minutes, name of pilot in command and/or total number of persons on the board is not changed.
2.4.2Operation on controlled aerodromes and within Control Zone (CTR)
22.214.171.124Descriptions of distinctive procedures for execution of VFR flights at particular controlled aerodromes are allocated in AIP CR, section AD, or subsection ENR 1.2.
2.5Night VFR flights
Note: In the CR, the VFR flight by day can be executed in the time from beginning of civil morning twilight till the end of civil twilight. Night VFR flight is considered the flight executed at night. Night is the period between the end of civil twilight (TE) and the beginning of civil morning twilight (TB). Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre of sun disc is 6 degrees below horizon and civil morning twilight begins in the morning when the centre of sun disc is 6 degrees below horizon. Tables of the civil morning twilight and twilight for 50° N and 15° E are listed in AIP CR, GEN 2.7.
TE and TB for a particular aerodrome can be calculated by substracting 4 minutes per each degree of longitude for AD located on the east, adding 4 minutes per each degree of longitude for AD located on the west from the 15th meridian.
2.5.1Division according to type of activities
Night VFR flights are classified into aerodrome flights and en-route flights. Flights in vicinity of aerodrome are considered to be aerodrome flights. All other night VFR flights are considered to be en-route flights.
Note: Aircraft is in vicinity of aerodrome when it is in, is entering or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit. For purposes of night VFR flight, flight in CTR and ATZ is considered a flight in vicinity of an aerodrome.
2.5.2General conditions for conducting of night VFR flights
Night VFR flights shall be conducted according to following general conditions:
- when practicable, aircraft with submitted FPL shall maintain two-way radiocommunication at appropriate ATS frequency;
- all aircraft conducting enroute flight shall be equipped and have operational SSR Mode A and C or Mode S transponder;
- prescribed minima in following table 2 shall be maintained:
Flight classification Minimum flight height Minimum lowest layer of clouds Minimum visibility Minimum cloud distance Aerodrome 1300 ft AGL 2300 ft AGL flight and ground 5 km 1,5 km horizontal, 1000 ft vertical circuits 1000 ft AAL/AGL* 2000 ft AAL/AGL* En-route 2000 ft AGL 3000 ft AGL flight 8 km Aeronautical Rescue Service flights below
1000 ft AGL
500 ft AGL and 600 m from obstacles or if the landing site is sufficiently lit
150 ft AGL or above an obstacle in the area of HEMS intervention
1500 ft AGL
flight and ground 3 km (1 pilot) clear of clouds in sight of surface (lights on ground) 1000 ft AGL
flight and ground 2,5 km (2 pilots) flights above
1000 ft AGL
1000 ft above flight height flight 5 km 1,5 km horizontal, 1000 ft vertical
126.96.36.199Aerodrome flights at night-time
- For aerodrome night VFR flights conducted from controlled aerodrome the aircraft operator or pilot shall provide information on the flight and that activity shall be negotiated with relevant ATS unit in advance.
- For aerodrome night VFR flights conducted from uncontrolled aerodrome the operator or pilot shall submit plan of activities to the relevant AFIS unit or to the unit Providing information to known traffic. In the plan of activities there shall be given number and type of aircraft, nature of activity, description of area of activity, maximum level of the flight, time of beginning and termination of activities.
- Minimum level of the flight of aerodrome night VFR flights shall be 1300 ft AGL and 1000 ft AAL on the aerodrome traffic circuit.
Note: All flights except flights in vicinity of aerodrome are considered to be en-route flights.
- En-route flights shall be planned and conducted so that they are flown at a height of 2000 ft AGL or more, except for take-off, landing and necessary climb and descent. Helicopters of aeronautical rescue service shall maintain at least 500 ft AGL at a horizontal distance 600 m from obstacles. On the place of intervention the height shall be at least 150 ft AGL or above an obstacle provided the landing site is sufficiently lit.
- Take-off and landing of en-route flights can be conducted only at aerodromes approved for night operations. Helicopters of aeronautical rescue service can lift-off and land elsewhere than at approved aerodromes and heliports provided they are equipped in accordance with JAR-OPS 3.
- For night VFR en-route flights an alternate airport shall be designated.
- For en-route flights the aircraft shall have navigational reserve of fuel and oil as for an IFR flight.
- Aircraft shall have at least one certified and operational bulit-in radio navigation aid (ADF, VOR, GPS).
- For every en-route flight into class C and D airspace ATC clearance shall be obtained and during flight the aircraft shall maintain radio contact with appropriate ATC unit.
- At aerodromes of departure, destination and at alternate aerodromes ATC/AFIS or Providing information to known traffic shall be provided in times of departure or arrival of aircraft. Such services or Providing information at these aerodromes can be discontinued only after all en-route flights have been terminated.
All aerodromes approved for night VFR flights are listed in AIP CR section AD or in this manual, part AD.
2.5.5Additional provisions for operation of free manned balloons
188.8.131.52Balloon equipment with anticollision lights
Anticollision lights shall be designed so as to be hinged bellow the balloon basket and located so that a white light flashes at the distance of 5 m from the basket and a red light flashes at the distance of another 5 m. There can be two white lights, provided that the second white light flashes at the distance of another 5 m bellow the red light. The red light and the white light(s) shall flash in opposite frequency, i.e. when the white light(s) is (are) illuminated the red light is to be turned off and vice versa. The frequency of flashes shall not be less than 40 and greater than 100 per minute.
The minimum intensity of the lights is 20 candles.
The anticollision lights shall be turned on during all the night flight time.
184.108.40.206Operation of instrument equipment during landing of the balloon
Since the moment when the pilot has initiated landing, but not higher than 100 m/300 ft AGL, the required instrument equipment of the balloon including anticollision lights can be turned off and located in the basket.
220.127.116.11Night landing of the balloon
Balloons may land in daytime only. Night landing is forbidden due to safety reasons. If a balloon lands in night time it is considered as an incident that is to be reported according to Chapter 4 of the L 13 requirements.
2.6Performing of the parachute jumping flights
2.6.1Performing and publishing of the parachute jumping (PJE)
18.104.22.168Aerodromes marked by the parachute designator
For aerodromes listed in table 2.6.3, the parachute designator means a navigation warning of parachute jumping performed within the ATZ horizontal limits from GND to upper limit of the class E airspace (even above the ATZ upper limit). The navigation warning is effective year round from SR till SS. The parachute designator is also on the aeronautical chart - ICAO 1:500 000. AFIS or Providing information to known traffic shall be ensured during the execution of parachute flights and jumping at the aerodrome or in the horizontal borders of the appropriate ATZ. Information about parachute activity shall be provided to other pilots of aircraft flying with in ATZ or entering ATZ. The aerodrome operator or person responsible for executing of parachute jumping at the aerodrome shall report by phone commencement of parachute jumping at least 20 minutes in advance and immediately its termination or suspension longer than 1 hour to the appropriate ATS unit or FIC Praha as applicable.
22.214.171.124Aerodromes not marked by the parachute designator
For parachute jumping at aerodromes, which are not listed in the table 2.6.3 and which are not marked by the parachute designator on the aeronautical chart - ICAO 1:500 000, publication of navigation warning by NOTAM is required. Publication of NOTAM does not acquit the aerodrome operator of duty to report commencement and termination of parachute jumping according to 126.96.36.199. AFIS or Providing information to known traffic shall be provided during parachute jumping. Information about parachute activity shall be provided to another pilots of aircraft flying in ATZ or entering to ATZ.
188.8.131.52Validity of the NOTAM with the navigation warning is limited to time period of the operation, horizontal limits (not exceeding the ATZ) and height (not exceeding the class E airspace upper limit).
184.108.40.206The parachute jumping out of the ATZ horizontal limits or parachute jumping performed from SS till SR shall only be performed after the restricted area has been segregated and published by a NOTAM.
220.127.116.11The aerodrome operator may request publishing of a restricted area for parachute exercises where a navigation warning is usually required. This rule is also applicable for aerodromes marked by the parachute designator.
18.104.22.168A navigation warning or a restricted area for parachute exercises is published for the class G and E airspace only. When parachute jumping is to be performed from levels in class D or C airspace, with the previous or following descent through class E and G airspace, a restricted area or a navigation warning for class E and G airspace only is published, and any activity performed within class D or C airspace shall be cleared by the appropriate ATC unit.
22.214.171.124Responsibility for submitting of all the information required for publishing of a navigation warning by the International NOTAM office (NOF) (for contacts see VFR-GEN 8.2) remains with the aerodrome operator or person entrusted by the aerodrome operator responsible for executing of parachute jumping. Requests for segregation of restricted area shall be submitted to the Airspace Management Cell (AMC) (see AIP CR ENR 1.1.9 for contact) by the aircraft operator or the aerodrome operator respectively (see 126.96.36.199). Proposals for restricted area NOTAM publication are prepared and submitted by the AMC. Requirements for submitting of AIS data for publication, including the appropriate form, are available in regulation L-15, appendix N.
188.8.131.52Planning and consecutive executing of parachute activity shall be coordinated and approved by the aerodrome operator.
2.6.2Responsibilities of the pilot-in-command of aircraft performing parachute jumping flights towards the ATS
184.108.40.206Parachute jumping within the class C and class D airspace
- The pilot-in-command of the aircraft intending to carry out a parachute jumping flight in a class C or D airspace is obliged to obtain an air traffic control clearance from the appropriate ATC unit. In case of an issued clearance, the pilot-in-command has to report commencement and termination of the parachute jumping to the appropriate ATC unit, if not stated otherwise by the unit.
- In the Sector Čechy the clearance to climb to Class C airspace can be asked for on the operational frequency of the FIC Praha and further it is necessary to proceed in accordance with the information received.
- If not otherwise instructed by the appropriate ATS unit, within the Class C or Class D airspace the parachute aircraft must keep inside of the ATZ horizontal limits (i.e. the radius 3 NM from the ARP) or the horizontal limits of the temporary restricted area reserved for PJE and published for the Class G and Class E airspace by means of NOTAM.
220.127.116.11Parachute jumping within the class E airspace
- The pilot-in-command of the aircraft intending to carry out a parachute jumping flight in a class E airspace shall report commencement of parachute jumping at least 5 minutes in advance either by telephone to the unit providing ATS in area concerned or on the assigned radio frequency. Termination of the parachute jumping shall be reported immediately in the same way.
- Besides the obligation resulting from art. 18.104.22.168 a), the pilot-in-command is responsible for reporting before each airdrop start and about its termination to the appropriate ATS unit or unit Providing information to known traffic. This responsibility is applied identically to airdrop execution within the temporary restricted area reserved for PJE.
- If it is executable (radio contact with uncontrolled VFR flights), pilots-in-command of aircraft flying to parachute activity area or its vicinity within class E airspace will be provided by information about this activity in additional 5 minutes after termination of the activity via FIS based on report according to provision 22.214.171.124 a).
126.96.36.199An appropriate AFIS or Providing information to known traffic unit can carry out the pilot-in-command responsibilities set in provisions 188.8.131.52 a) and 184.108.40.206 a) and subsequently inform the pilot-in-command. If this information is not passed on, pilot-in-command shall consider these responsibilities as not performed.
2.6.3List of aerodromes marked by the parachute designator
|Ústí nad Orlicí||LKUO|
2.7Performing take-offs of parchute and hang gliders using tow winch in the airspace of the CR
2.7.1Performing and publishing take-offs of tow winch parachute and hang gliders (hereinafter "tow winch PG/HG take-offs")
220.127.116.11PGZ (paragliding zone - area for tow winch PG/HG)
The symbol of "paragliding parachute" listed in table 2.7.2 is identifying PGZ as a navigation warning for performance of tow winch PG/HG take-offs in boundaries defined by PGZ. The area of PGZ is defined horizontally by a circle with radius 1 NM and vertically from GND to 4000 ft AMSL. This navigation warning is valid from TB to TE all year round. PGZ with the symbol of "paragliding parachute" is shown also on ICAO 1:500 000 map. Person responsible for performance of tow winch PG/HG take-offs is obliged to report by phone the commencement of the activity at least 20 minutes in advance and termination or suspension longer than 1 hour without delay to appropriate ATS unit or FIC Praha as applicable.
18.104.22.168Areas not marked by "paragliding parachute" symbol
On areas, which are not listed in table 2.7.2, except aerodromes, tow winch PG/HG take-offs can be performed only after publishing “navigation warning” via NOTAM. Publishing of this NOTAM does not remove the obligation to report the commencement, suspension or termination of the activity according to 22.214.171.124.
In time of performance of tow winch PG/HG take-offs on aerodrome, the AFIS service or Providing information to known traffic shall be provided, where on its frequency the pilots can receive information about performed activities. Person responsible for performance of tow winch PG/HG take-offs is obliged to report by phone the commencement of the activity at least 20 minutes in advance and immediately the termination or suspension longer than 1 hour to the appropriate ATS unit or FIC Praha as applicable.
126.96.36.199Navigation warning for tow winch PG/HG take-offs is a notice to pilots flying through the area especially on the existence of towing rope of a winch PG/HG in the whole vertical extent of published navigation warning.
188.8.131.52Navigation warning for tow winch PG/HG take-offs can be published only for airspace of class G and E. Activity extending into airspace of class D and C is subject to clearance of particular ATC unit.
184.108.40.206The tow winch operator, or authorized person responsible for performed activity, is responsible for submitting the request for publishing "navigation warning" NOTAM to NOTAM office (NOF), for contact see VFR-GEN-8.
220.127.116.11Performance of tow winch PG/HG take-offs on aerodrome or in ATZ, or extending into the ATZ, shall be coordinated with AFIS unit, the unit providing information to known traffic or the aerodrome operator before its commencement, unless otherwise stated in appropriate coordination agreement.
2.7.2List of PGZ
|Borotice||48 50 52 N||016 14 07 E||12 km E Znojmo|
|Černiv||50 26 47 N||014 02 31 E||7 km NW Budyně nad Ohří|
|Hradčany||50 37 10 N||014 43 58 E||5 km S Mimoň|
|Koclířov||49 46 02 N||016 30 57 E||3 km NE Svitavy|
|Malý Pěčín||49 06 18 N||015 28 26 E||3 km NE Dačice|
|Nechranice||50 20 21 N||013 24 58 E||9 km NW Žatec|
|Niva||49 24 57 N||016 50 42 E||15 km NE Blansko|
|Radkovice u Budče||49 05 40 N||015 38 08 E||9 km NE Jemnice|
|Tchořovice||49 25 55 N||013 47 48 E||6 km W Blatná|
|Újezd||49 31 22 N||015 51 12 E||7 km SW Žďár nad Sázavou|
|Vidlatá Seč||49 49 54 N||016 12 34 E||10 km SW Litomyšl|
|Všechov||49 26 18 N||014 37 17 E||4 km NW Tábor|
2.8Performing of the glider flights
2.8.1Soaring in a thermal
18.104.22.168Soaring in a common thermal
- Pilots soaring in common thermal shall keep the same sense of turn and safe separation.
- The direction of turn is determined by the pilot who has initiated the circling.
- The below turning pilot is obliged to keep visual contact with the glider turning in front of him at the same level or higher.
- The glider pilot, who is not able to meet here mentioned conditions during centering, is obliged to leave the common thermal.
- The pilot of a glider climbing faster than that one higher, shall arrange his flight the way he doesn`t lose it from his sight and concurrently is obliged to maintain the separation which doesn`t cause a collision hazard.
22.214.171.124Soaring in two thermals
Gliders soaring in two thermals must follow the trajectories which are not intersecting and the safe distance must be observed between them.
- Gliders must soar in a safe distance from the slope and at safe height.
- Gliders must soar along the ridge a make all turns away from the ridge.
- The pilot with his right side to the ridge takes precedence over that with his left side to the ridge. When two gliders are approaching head-on or approximately head-on the glider with its left side to the ridge must give way by heading to the right.
- Faster flying glider pilot must overtake the slower one the way the overtaking glider would be always farer from the slope than the overtaken one. The overtaken glider always takes precedence over the overtaking one.
Note: For a particular location where the slope soaring is executed, the special directives can be adopted, adjusting the local principles of slope soaring. The pilots have to get familiar with these directives.
2.8.3Glider off−field landing Arrival Report
126.96.36.199Report of Arrival of glider which has landed outside an aerodrome must be forwarded when flight plan for this flight had been submitted or when pilot announced his/her decision to land outside an aerodrome on ATS frequency.
188.8.131.52In case that the pilot announced off−field landing on TWR/APP, AFIS or FIC Praha frequency, he/she must forward Arrival Report to the same unit.
184.108.40.206In case that the pilot of glider intends to land outside an aerodrome and place of landing is situated in an CTR, this decision must be forwarded on frequency of appropriate TWR or APP.
220.127.116.11Announcement about decision of the pilot of glider to land outside an aerodrome shall include identification of the glider and intended landing site specified by position, assesed distance and direction to a known position or by coordinates. Pilot may to establish a term till when he/she forwards the report of arrival. If this term is not established, ATS units proceed in accordance with Chapter 5 of the ICAO Annex 11.
18.104.22.168Phraseology to be used:
POSITION (position), LANDING / GOING TO LAND TO TERRAIN AT (location of an intended landing place if known) [WILL CONFIRM LANDING BY TELEPHONE WITHIN (number) MINUTES]
2.8.4Rescue parachutes equipment of gliders
In the C.R. the pilots and other persons on board of glider or powered glider are obliged to be equipped with rescue parachute during all flights above 1.000 ft (300m) AGL, during all flights using thermals or performing elements of aerobatics. It is recommended to use the parachutes during all glider flights.
2.9Unmanned systems activities
Activity of unmanned systems is subject to Appendix X of aviation regulation L 2.
2.10Non-standard operational situations (Unusual/Emergency Situations)
The procedures used by ATS units when providing assistance during bellow stated situations are taken into consideration in following rules. The rules are not dogmatic, particular situation has to be regarded when searching for optimal solution. If the crew is in doubts about present position it`s necessary to keep calm at first and to think straight – it is important to report the situation in time, to pay attention to controlling the aircraft and holding awareness of surrounding airspace and potential traffic. The basic assumption of being provided with the assistance is the radio station on board.
2.10.1Loss of orientation/Strayed aircraft
22.214.171.124The aircraft is recommended to:
- Establish the radio connection with appropriate ATS unit, or, if it is not feasible, to climb to higher level, if meteorological conditions allow, where a reliable radio and surveillance systems coverage can be ensured.
- Report the loss of orientation to the ATS unit together with the:
- Last known position,
- Present heading,
- Speed and
The ATS unit verifies VMC with the crew.
When the aircraft is equipped with a serviceable SSR transponder, depending on suitability and gravity the appropriate ATS unit assigns a discrete code or the code A7700 or asks for “SQUAWK IDENT” alternatively. Therefore the position information based on surveillance systems identification is announced to the crew.
When the aircraft is not equipped with a serviceable SSR transponder, the appropriate ATS unit is able to inform it about magnetic track to the ground station or the magnetic bearing from the ground station (i.e. at what direction from the ground station is the aircraft located).
- Assess the amount of fuel and estimated endurance, and to communicate a decision, whether the crew`s intention is to continue in accordance with planned route or towards the nearest convenient aerodrome and possibly ask for details about the aerodrome.
- Bear in mind in case of navigational assistance by FIC (contrary to ATC unit) the recommended tracks are provided only. The pilot-in command is responsible for the operation of the aircraft, including VMC during VFR flight; nevertheless progress of the flight will be monitored, whenever practicable.
2.10.2Loss of VMC
126.96.36.199The aircraft is recommended to:
- Establish the radio connection with appropriate ATS unit, or, if it is not feasible, to climb to higher level, if meteorological conditions allow, where a reliable radio and surveillance systems coverage can be ensured.
- Report the loss of VMC expecting the ATS unit will:
- Assign a discrete code or the code A7700 or asks for “SQUAWK IDENT” alternatively, depending on suitability and gravity, and verify the visual contact with terrain.
- Pass the current QNH value, verify the level and if identified bellow the MRVA, the aircraft will be recommended, depending on its position, to climb up to this altitude.
- Inform the crew about the weather conditions and expected progress from available sources (meteorological radar, satellite etc.), about location of nearest appropriate (e.g. controlled) aerodrome or sport flying equipment area.
- Bear in mind in case of loss of orientation the FIC (contrary to ATC unit) provides the recommended tracks only. The pilot-in command is responsible for the operation of the aircraft, including VMC during VFR flight, nevertheless its progress will be monitored, if practicable.
- Report, as soon as the VMC are restored and the crew is able to resume own navigation, this fact to ATS unit providing navigational assistance and to communicate a decision about further intentions regarding the flight execution.
2.10.3Rules for operation and communication of aircraft involved in an intervention
188.8.131.52Aircraft engaged in aeronautical activities directly related to rescue of life, environmental protection, imminent threat prevention or flights to ensure safety of persons, property or public order or training supporting such activities (hereinafter referred to as "intervention"), shall use the frequency channel 135,460 for communication and coordination in order to avoid collisions at the intervention site.
184.108.40.206These activities include, in particular, HEMS flights, firefighting service, evacuation of persons in case of natural disasters and mass accidents, search for missing persons or other flights of similar nature.
220.127.116.11Using frequency channel 135,460 does not take priority over, or replace, frequency channels that are compulsorily used in on-going search and rescue operations or in an intervention in parts of the airspace requiring a continuous two-way radio connection of the aircraft with a ground station.
Note: The search and rescue service in terms of L12 national regulation is further described in GEN 9 of the VFR Manual and GEN 3.6 of AIP CR.
Note: Airspace parts specification, related procedures and instructions for radio communication between the aircraft and the ground station can be found in relevant chapters of the VFR Manual.
18.104.22.168Rules for the use of the above mentioned frequency channel at the site of intervention:
Any aircraft arriving in the area of intervention where operation of other intercepting aircraft is reasonably foreseeable or already observed shall use blind transmission to report its position and information about executed or intended aeronautical activity.
The aircraft already operating at the intervention site must respond reporting its position, information about activity that it’s carrying out, or report its next intended activity at the intervention site. Aircraft already operating on the site must communicate with each other to coordinate their activities and avoid collisions.
In exceptional cases, for reasons of special consideration, state aircraft do not have the obligation to report its position and intentions, should it be in the public interest necessary for fulfillment of tasks ensuring security of the state.
In special cases, a ground station operator may enter communication with aircraft or unmanned aircraft operators on the site to prevent collisions of the participating aircraft or coordination of aeronautical activities on the intervention site.
Entering the communication of aircraft on the intervention site shall only be done if the conditions stated by the applicable legislation are met, which means that the used ground station must be approved by the Civil Aviation Authority for use in civil aviation and Individual License for ground station to use frequencies must be issued by the Czech Telecommunication Office and the operator of the station must have General certificate for radio operator.